Why Yersinia pestis is bipolar staining?

Why Yersinia pestis is bipolar staining?

Y. pestis is a nonmotile, stick-shaped, facultative anaerobic bacterium with bipolar staining (giving it a safety pin appearance) that produces an antiphagocytic slime layer. Similar to other Yersinia species, it tests negative for urease, lactose fermentation, and indole.

What bacteria shows bipolar staining?

Bipolar staining is typically described as characteristic of Yersinia pestis; however, it is important to note that most Enterobacteriaceae can have a bipolar staining appearance when found in clinical specimens.

What is bipolar staining?

Pasteurella multocida is a small, nonmotile Gram-negative coccobacillus, which often exhibits bipolar staining, in which the ends of the bacilli stain more intensely than the middle.

How do you test for Yersinia pestis?

Y. pestis may be identified microscopically by examination of Gram, Wright, Giemsa, or Wayson's stained smears of peripheral blood, sputum, or lymph node specimen. Visualization of bipolar-staining, ovoid, Gram-negative organisms with a “safety pin” appearance permits a rapid presumptive diagnosis of plague.

What antibiotic kills Yersinia pestis?

Streptomycin is the most effective antibiotic against Y. pestis and the drug of choice for treatment of plague, particularly the pneumonic form (2-6).

What bacteria caused the bubonic plague?

It is caused by the bacterium, Yersinia pestis. Humans usually get plague after being bitten by a rodent flea that is carrying the plague bacterium or by handling an animal infected with plague.

What was the mortality rate of the Black Plague?

The Black Death was the second disaster affecting Europe during the Late Middle Ages (the first one being the Great Famine of 1315–1317) and is estimated to have killed 30% to 60% of Europe's population.

What disease has the highest mortality rate?

Read on to see the top 10 diseases causing the most deaths worldwide, according to the World Health Organization (WHO) .

  1. Ischemic heart disease, or coronary artery disease. ...
  2. Stroke. ...
  3. Lower respiratory infections. ...
  4. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. ...
  5. Trachea, bronchus, and lung cancers. ...
  6. Diabetes mellitus.

Why did God send plagues?

Because Pharaoh refused to set the Israelites free, God decided to punish him, sending ten plagues on to Egypt. These included: The Plague of Blood. God ordered Aaron to touch the River Nile with his staff - and the waters were turned to blood.

What happens after the 7 plagues?

Next, seven angels are given vials or bowls to pour out upon the earth which contain "the seven last plagues". These last judgments will complete God's wrath. The first bowl produces unbearable sores on humanity. The second bowl results in the death of every living thing in the sea.

What was the final plague?

The ten plagues include agricultural blights, such as locusts; diseases, such as boils; supernatural or astronomical plagues, such as storms of fire or darkness; and, finally, the tenth plague — the killing of all firstborn Egyptian sons.

What was the sixth plague of Egypt?

The sixth plague was an acute epidemic skin disease, though probably not deadly, characterized by boils that eventually formed ulcers on the skin. The Egyptians and their animals were most likely exposed to fine dust with soot from kilns not only via the skin, but also via inhalation.

What killed the firstborn of Egypt?

The Tenth Plague God did not just send Moses to Pharaoh and without any warning, have the firstborn sons of Egypt struck dead. ... But beyond even this, after the ninth plague, Pharaoh told Moses that if Moses came before him again Pharaoh would kill him (Exodus 10:28).

How many bubonic plagues were there?

There have been three great world pandemics of plague recorded, in 541, 1347, and 1894 CE, each time causing devastating mortality of people and animals across nations and continents. On more than one occasion plague irrevocably changed the social and economic fabric of society.

What were the 3 plagues?

There are three basic forms of plague:

  • Bubonic plague. The most common form of plague is bubonic plague. ...
  • Septicemic plague. When the bacteria enter the bloodstream directly and multiply there, it's known as septicemic plague. ...
  • Pneumonic plague.

What was the first pandemic plague?

The Plague of Justinian or Justinianic Plague (541–549 AD) was the beginning of the first plague pandemic, the first Old World pandemic of plague, the contagious disease caused by the bacterium Yersinia pestis.

How long did the Spanish flu last?

The influenza pandemic of 1918–19, also called the Spanish flu, lasted between one and two years.